ItemSynthesis, Purification, and Computer Modeling of I80-H37(Northern Kentucky University) Wright, Makayla"Heteroaryl compounds have been shown to hold a prospective significance in pharmaceutical circumstances. I80 and H37 represent the molecules tropinone and 3- bromoquinolone, respectively. As such, this research focuses on the synthesis of heteroaryl compounds with a tropinone scaffold. Furthermore, the efficacy of these target compounds as an aromatase inhibitor can be analyzed. To predict this, computer modeling was utilized with relation to three major molecular interactions: hydrogen bonding, heme chelation, and hydrophobic interactions. Molecules that contain these interactions are thus an effective aromatase inhibitor. This is correspondingly reflected through the molecule’s docking score-- a higher score demonstrates stronger inhibiting properties." ItemReducing Funerary Pollution through Greener Burials(Northern Kentucky University) Winkle, Kayla"Traditional burials and cremations are the most common methods of burials, but require many resources and cause pollution to the soil and air. Greener burials are a solution to this pollution by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in burials and limiting the number of resources and land used in burials. There is a lack of education on green burials that has led people to disregard them and continue with their traditional methods of burial that appease their religion and culture. However, with education society can realize that burials can be environmentally friendly and satisfy their spiritual needs." ItemIntegrating Creativity: Measuring helping professionals’ willingness to implement creative interventions(Northern Kentucky University) Wilson, Shannon"Though research supports the use of creativity within the helping profession, it remains unclear how willing professionals are to use these modalities. This study aims to measure helping professionals’ perception and willingness to implement creativity within their existing practice. A brief self- report survey was administered and completed by 52 graduate level social work and counseling students. Results showed that a majority of helping professionals view creativity as important within the profession. Nearly half of respondents reported that they did not feel equipped to provide these interventions, but 92% reported be willing to obtain additional certifications in order to do so." ItemThe Synthesis of Tropinone and Heteroaryl Compounds to Create Aromatase Inhibitors(Northern Kentucky University) Wells, Hannah"The purpose of this experiment was to study the heteroaryl molecule, I80- H37. This molecule includes a tropinone scaffold and a heterocyclic ring, nitrogen heterocycles are important and used in pharmaceuticals due to their active agents that result in optimization of the properties of drugs/drug candidates. Heteroaryl compounds are important in the medical field. Our research will specifically provide helpful information regarding the aromatase inhibitors that may be useful in fighting breast cancer. It will also give students the opportunity to excel by providing them experience in Undergraduate Research in Organic Chemistry Course (UROCC) and Coursebased Undergraduate Research Experiences (CURE)." ItemThe Effects of Cancel Culture: Examining The Public's Response to Apologies and its Lasting Impact on Reputation Recovery(Northern Kentucky University) Weber, Alyssa"""Cancel Culture"", or cancelling describes the act of no longer supporting an individual, typically a public figure due to questionable behaviors. In 2020 alone, there were more cancel cases than any other year to date. Even though some were accused of exhibiting similar behaviors or making similar comments, the public responded differently, and therefore these canceled public figures were affected differently. This project will examine two “cancel cases” and how their careers were affected one year after their respective allegations occurred." ItemImpact of Maternal Helminths on Learning and Memory(Northern Kentucky University) Weaver, Madeleen; DeMoisey, Olivia"Neuroinflammation can occur during development and cause cognitive impairments. Helminths have been shown to reduce cognitive disfunction and inflammation if given to mom and pups, but never if given to moms before she has her pups. We hypothesize that maternal helminth colonization will reduce the cognitive impairment associated with neonatal E. coli infection and an LPS injection in adulthood. We also hypothesize that maternal helminth colonization will reduce neuroinflammation in pups following an E. coli infection. Mom rats were inoculated with helminths to act as anti- inflammatories to observe effects on her offspring early in life and when they are trying to learn as adults. PCR arrays were run on the tissue of the hippocampus of P1 and P4 pups. Context Pre-Exposure Facilitation Effect was then performed on P60 rats to evaluate freezing on the third day. Results showed that there was a significant difference between females and males, with females freezing more than males, especially when given LPS. Rearing and grooming showed no significant difference. The PCR arrays on the P1 and P4 pups showed change in neonatal brains depending on mom treatment, sex, and age. We can start to see more gene expression within certain genes depending on the gender and treatment the mom received and the age of the neonates. In conclusion, adult female rats froze more than males, but more research will continue as more rats are added to the Context PreExposure Facilitation Effect paradigm. In neonatal brains, there are various variables affecting cytokines. Those variables include maternal treatment, sex, and age. Research will continue as more rats are added to explore these findings." ItemBurnout(Northern Kentucky University) Wears, CalebWhen you hear of the term “burnout” what is your first thought? Maybe you think of a dead-end job that someone may be working, and they have just had enough? Or maybe you think of a student that has just way too much work on their plate and does not know how to finish it all? Or maybe you just think of someone that cannot keep going with everything that they are going through. If you thought of anyone of these thoughts, then you are absolutely right and then some. Burnout is something that everyone faces at some point when it comes to their work, career, living situation and even their own friends and family. There are many different types of burnout as you can see but the two most important things that you should know about burnout is one, being able to recognize it and know what to do to fix it because it many cases, we realize that we are burnt-out and cannot find a solution to combat it. While going into many different professions and looking into the research and the implications of burnout in certain job fields would yield some pretty interesting results, I am looking at burnout strictly in a leadership standpoint. ItemURROC- Undergraduate Research in Organic Chemistry Course Synthesis of Heteroaryl Molecule I80-H53 through Palladium Catalyzed Heteroarylation(Northern Kentucky University) Watson, Elizabeth"Our research focused on the properties of several heteroaryl molecules which had never been synthesized in the hopes that they will help find better treatment for breast cancer. 2.4 NaOtBu, 2% XPhos Pd Gen 4, 1.1 tropinone (I80), 1 heteroaryl (H53), and 2 mL of toluene molar equivalents were used in the synthesis. This mixture underwent microwave irradiation to produce the heteroaryl tropinone product. This product was purified using acetone centrifugation and acid-base extraction and then identified using NMR. The synthesized molecule may be able to function as an aromatase inhibitor and help treat hormone receptor- positive breast cancer." ItemCourse-Based Undergraduate Research (CURE) Integration Increases Student Overall Success(Northern Kentucky University) Wallace, Bridget"Traditional learning in undergraduate STEM degrees is not always conducive to all learning styles, especially when it comes to performance in a lab environment. Course- based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CURE) allow a broader range of students the opportunity to participate in scientific research, while also engaging these students in a new style of learning. Northern Kentucky University implemented CURE labs to embrace real- world techniques and give drive and meaning to the work that each student performs in the lab. Ultimately, CURE labs improve students’ success in STEM and in college, as well as make research more accessible to a broader scale." ItemResponsibility of Climate Change within American Communities(Northern Kentucky University) Wagner, Tessa"Why isn't the American public better informed about climate change and ways to help combat its effects? I propose that certain factors within the crisis of climate change are impacting the lack of interest and or denial about the importance of finding a solution to climate change. This complex problem has arisen in our contemporary society but hasn’t been given adequate attention. This issue is worthy of more aggressive attention by the public because climate change affects everyone. My intention is for people to take a look at the world around them and be motivated to realize the effects of climate change are occurring and for them to educate themselves in order to find/implement ways to stop it. My argument is that if people of the world keep denying the fact that climate change exists then what is going to happen if it's actually real and causing our planet to die? I am focusing on American communities because I find as an American there are a huge amount of factors that go into the communication of important world issues and as we have seen with the current pandemic, these factors are lacking majorly. American communities will be better off with proper communication because there will not only be a shared knowledge about how to help our planet survive but the motivation to realize the dire consequences of each other’s actions. Overall climate change can be stopped but Americans need to realize our place in the world and make an effort to change our ways. Improving our communication and knowledge about climate change will make a positive impact on our society and our future lives." ItemFemale Sexual Harassment in Higher Education(Northern Kentucky University) Vogel, Jessica"Sexual harassment towards females is highly prevalent in multiple environments, especially on college campuses. The research shows 59.2% of undergraduate female students experienced harassing behavior, reporting the highest levels of sexual misconduct incidents out of all genders surveyed. Female students who experience sexual harassment, 61% are undergraduate and 65.8% are graduate, also experience negative emotional and academic outcomes. This cross- sectional, self-administered online survey examined the prevalence of sexual harassment on NKU’s and other college campuses, and illustrates the negative impacts it has on female students. These results bridge the gap in research and give additional insight into how to better serve students’ needs." ItemMore Than Just Quality(Northern Kentucky University) Vincent, Vivi"Specialty coffee farmers face many challenges in production. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these challenges that specialty coffee farmers face in order to identify the factors that impact the price of specialty coffee, to communicate with customers why they pay a premium for their coffee. The research in this paper includes industry articles, dissertations, and peer- reviewed journal articles centered around the production of specialty coffee and its impacts on farmers. To further enhance the research, I conducted three interviews with Mid- western specialty coffee roasters to gain insight into their interactions with producers and their direct trade models. I found that commodity pricing on coffee severely impacts the volatility of this industry and disregards common business profitability models. The conclusion is that direct trade and relational coffee models add value to consumers and producers. These models employ common business profitability models, but the coffee is more expensive and higher quality than what consumers may expect." ItemMicrowave Irradiation of Heteroaryl Compounds with Tropinone for the Synthesis of Aromatase Inhibitors(Northern Kentucky University) Ungar, Liat; Seibert, Samuel"Heteroaryl compounds are important molecules with extensive significance in medical chemistry. In our lab, we reacted heteroaryl compounds (4- Bromoquinolone) with tropinone using microwave irradiation at 160°C and 180°C in the presence of palladium catalyst. Techniques such as NMR, MPLC, and computer modeling were then utilized to isolate and purify the compound as well as assess its potential as an orally active drug. Overall, this research is significant because the product obtained could possibly serve as an aromatase inhibitor which would help in the treatment of breast cancer patients." ItemCultural Competence and Empathy for Japanese in America(Northern Kentucky University) Turley, Abigail"Much attention today focuses on the journey of immigrants to America, but less popular is acculturation and adaption that marks immigrant's new lives here. This paper focuses particularly on the story of Japanese immigrants in America. They face barriers such as language acquisition, resource awareness, and Socio- cultural difference native- born Americans have never experienced. Drawing on the history of political interaction between Japan and America, English language acquisition, and intercultural communication styles, I look at struggles and supports for them in the US. I finish by asking what we can do as individuals to be supportive to Japanese in our community." ItemVeteran Reintegration on College Campuses(Northern Kentucky University) Terry, Michaela"The literature suggests that there is a chasm between civilians and veterans, with many civilians having negative perceptions of veterans (e.g. aggressive, mentally unstable). The literature has not yet explored whether these perceptions also exist among college students. Examining this topic is essential since veterans are entering universities at higher rates than ever before. By means of an electronic survey, distributed through social media, this study will examine college students’ perceptions of veterans. The findings from this study are expected to show that civilian college students have negative perceptions of veterans, similar to those held by the general civilian population." ItemNo relationship between clutch size and the embryonic heart rate of Eastern Blue birds(Northern Kentucky University) Tendam, MarissaNatural selection will favor birds that maximize their fitness with a clutch size that will produce the most viable offspring while not being too stressful to take care of. We predicted that nests with a larger clutch would have a slower development, and therefore a lower heart rate, since it would be more difficult for the mother to incubate all the eggs evenly. For this study we used the Buddy digital egg monitor, which uses infrared light absorption in order to noninvasively measure the embryonic heart rate, on Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) eggs to determine if the clutch size had any effect on the heart rate of the individual eggs. We collected 237 readings from individual Eastern Bluebird eggs which came from 28 different nests. Contrary to our prediction, our results showed that the clutch size had no effect on the heart rate of the eggs. However, we did find a positive relationship between embryonic heart rate and both age of the eggs and external temperature. This study provides new information on the embryonic heart rate of wild birds and more insight on the different factors that may impact the rate. ItemPredicting Public Opinion on Abortion Laws(Northern Kentucky University) Swaiss, Joanna"How do certain demographic characteristics predict public opinion on abortion laws? I proposed to test two theories of public opinion attitudes (the role of race and religiosity on support for abortion). After an extensive literature review, I developed a twenty-question survey to test this. The results demonstrate that greater religiosity leads to less support for abortion; however, limited relationships between race and support, contrary to the literature." ItemPerceptions of Law Enforcement and Social Work Collaboration(Northern Kentucky University) Sumner, Cara"Nationally, crime incidents increasingly gain media attention. Media sources increasingly criticize police, suggest they are given too much authority/responsibility and argue that situations would have been better addressed by social services. This study explores the perceptions of individuals that have had previous interaction(s) with law enforcement, and if they feel their situation would have been better addressed by social services. Data is collected virtually via a self- administered 5-minute survey. This research will result in targeted policy initiatives and improved social service interventions for law enforcement interactions, as well as an improved and targeted research focus based on these preliminary results." ItemRiding the Pulse through Critical Entertainment Journalism: Ethnography of Film Critics(Northern Kentucky University) Stephenson, Joshua"Due to limited access to education and job positions, film critics face structural gatekeeping in finding the role they play in the diverse public media representation of films and television. Based on unstructured interviews, email correspondence, and social media interaction between October and November 2020, this project highlights the hierarchical structure of entertainment journalism as well as the platforms on which it takes place. The ethnography focuses on nine freelance, permalance, and staff writers as well as editors who provided insight into the pressures of finding and maintaining one’s niche and relationships within the critical entertainment journalism industry." ItemIdentification of the enzyme required for the acp3U modification in plastidic tRNA(Northern Kentucky University) Spigelmyer, Sarah; Funk, Holly M."Posttranscriptional tRNA modifications are essential for protein translation and proper cell growth. Defects in human tRNA modifications are associated with diseases such as cancer, type two diabetes, neurological disorders, and mitochondrial-linked disorders. The 3-amino-3 propylcarboxyuridine (acp3U) modification on tRNA is found in bacteria, plants, and animals, but not in yeast. DTWD proteins were recently identified as the enzymes responsible for acp3U modifications on eukaryotic tRNA. DTWD2 was shown to be responsible for the acp3U modification at residue 20a in human cells. We determined that DTWD2 forms acp3U20a in D. melanogaster cells. In A. thaliana, there are three homologs of human DTWD2 which are DTWD2A (AT2G41750), DTWD2B (AT5G54880), and TapT-like (AT1G03687). Our lab was able to identify that the aspartate and tryptophan residues of the DTWD2A protein in A. thaliana are required for modification activity and we were able to determine that it forms acp3U at position 20b on the tRNA. This was determined by expressing A. thaliana tRNA and A. thaliana DTWD2 genes in trm1Δ met22Δ yeast cells and testing by primer extension with fluorescent oligonucleotides. It is the current aim of this work to utilize the methods used to identify DTWD2A as the enzyme responsible for acp3U at position 20b to identify the substrates of the DTWD2B and Tap-T like proteins. From this research we hope to better understand gene expression in multiple model multicellular eukaryotes."